Risk Assessment and Mitigation of Feral Pigeons Droppings on Heritage Sites Case study: Habu Temple (Luxor - West Bank)-Mahmoud Mousa

Document Type : Academic peer-reviewed articles


Heritage sites and historic buildings are continually exposed to a variety of environmental damage-causing factors among which is the disturbing presence of wild or “feral” pigeons within these structures. This not only has a negative aesthetic impact, but also causes a great deal of physical damage due to the buildup of refuse on the roofs and walls of these structures, affecting their integrity and authenticity.
We selected the Temple of Medinet Habu as a suitable model for our study, since it is one of the most prominent Egyptian temples from the Pharaonic period, located on the west bank of Luxor in southern Egypt, where there are many feral pigeons.
We will show some of the approaches that have been used to alleviate the problems caused by the presence of these birds and to address the challenges caused by their habitation of the monuments, some of which have proven successful for a brief time, in addition to suggesting some methods that could be used in the future